Thursday, May 21, 2020
Track and field events are among the individual sports whereby individual effort is more important than the team strategy in winning the event. Team work on the other hand is quite important since when people work together, they tend to gain more as opposed to individual effort (John, 2007). This is well attributed to Kenyan athletes who in most cases employ team work in this individualized event to scoop top medals more so in 3000 m steeple chase, whereby they are seen to encourage one another and more so working as a team through out the race. Reward system can be good or bad depending on how it is implemented. To enhance team work, the coach needs to emphasize to athletes the importance of winning many medals as this will count on overall performance of the institution. Though an individualized sport, the coach can emphasize on rewarding the whole team rather than individual in that particular event, based on their performance. For reward system to be used, it has to include all documentation that will sustain improvements. First is to develop infrastructure where participants feel free to talk about their skills with open discussions in groups, (Volckmann, 2007). There are many ways of rewarding and encouraging team work in the institution. Some of the recommendation for rewarding the best performance will include a day out, a weekend to some of prestigious training grounds, partial or full time scholarship to the team that wins consecutive trophies and promoting the team with sports attire which will elevate their morale. In order for the athletes to work as a team, the coach should categorize the events so that all the athletes that fall under that category embrace the element of team work. The reward system should be based on the sub category of the events athletes fall in. These categories may include short races, middle distance races and long distance races. On the side of field events, he can include throwing events and jumping event. Conclusion The reward system will encourage participants to be more cooperative and be more competitive, thus more teamwork. References: John,H. (2007). Benefits of team work and collaboration. New York: Penguin publishers. Houlihan and Green (2008), Comparative elite sport development: systems, structures and public policy, First edition, Oxford, Elsevier ltd.
on May 21, 2020
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Customer Services Team handles all inbound calls for the business (1000+ per day) and operates from 08:00 to 20:00 Monday to Saturday. There are fifteen team members two of which are Team Leaders. The Team is further divided into different sub-groups that deal with different business sectors such as Pharma, Telecommunications, e-commerce. The main focus of the team is dealing with customer queries via inbound calls and managing corporate accounts in terms of providing daily reports and updates. The Team Assessment and the group discussions would seem to indicate that this is a group of individuals that are operating in a very structured environment and while they are referred to as a team they do not actually operate as a team.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦As outlined they were aligned to both financial and performance objectives within the organisation. The second criteria was more difficult to assess in that while the intended outcomes were clear the nature of the intervention and its ability to produce these outcomes was less so. The final criteria involves the transfer of change management competence to the team which was difficult to assess prior to the intervention however in giving it consideration the transfer of these skills was to be a component of the intervention in that it would be part of the intervention to transfer some basic change management concepts to the team which they would be encouraged to use when working together. Prior to the intervention consideration was also given to the desired outcomes on a higher level than those that were financial and performance based. What would the team look like after the intervention? Would they evolve into a High Performance Team and if so what defines a High Performance Team? To establish these desired outcomes an analysis of the key stakeholders of the team was completed. Figure 1: Customer Service Key Stakeholders This analysis and subsequent meetings with these stakeholders revealed a number of different requirements many of which were conflicting with each other. This revealed some of the root causes behind the results of the team assessment particularly in relation to decision making and respect. This wasShow MoreRelatedGroup and team development Part 1- Group development All the parties involved; The Woodson900 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGroup and team development Part 1- Group development All the parties involved; The Woodson foundation, the school district and the NCPIE all ultimately have the same goal, which is to have a successful school system in the D.C. area. To start off, I would first define a group to have a better understanding of what these three parties want to build to know where they stand in the development stage. 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Discuss factors that facilitate or impede helping behaviour In this essay we will discuss what defines behaviour/ helping behaviour, the social, environmental and biological influences that affect a personÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour, pro-social behaviour, and the different factors that impede helping behaviour. Also Latane and DarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s 1968 Ã¢â¬â 1980 experiments and studies that were conducted to understand human behaviour will be discussed, as well as the Kitty Genovese incident, in order to research into why help was not shown when there were so many people around.Behaviour can be defined as the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. We will write a custom essay sample on Discuss Factors That Facilitate or Impede Helping Behaviour or any similar topic only for you Order Now Behaviour can happen consciously or subconsciously, overt or covert, and can also be voluntary or involuntary to humans. Human behaviour can be common, unusual, acceptable or unacceptable. Helping behaviour refers to voluntary actions intended to help others. It is a subcategory of pro-social behaviour; intentional act that helps or benefits another individual or group of individuals. This can be demonstrated by sharing, comforting, rescuing and helping.Altruistic behaviour is a subcategory of helping behaviour, which refers to pro-social behaviour that is carried out with the desire to benefit another without expectation of obtaining external or internal reward. According to the theory of universal egoism, people are fundamentally selfish and altruism is an impossibility, (Dovidio 1995, as cited in Gross 2001. ) However certain kinds of casual helping (McGuire, 1994) or low-cost altruism (Brown, 1986) seem to be fairly common, such as giving a stranger directions or telling them the time.Pro-social behaviour can be defined as behaviour that has positive social consequences and contributes to the physical or psychological well being of another person. It is thought that Kin Selection is a genetic response to supporting the broader gene p ool. Social conditioning can also have been a cause and pro-social parents lead to pro-social children. The reciprocity norm is when help is given to those who have given help to us in the past or where people help others, knowing that one day they may want someone to help them in the same unselfish way.This can affect peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s way of helping others. As well as the social exchange theory where human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize oneÃ¢â¬â¢s reward and minimize oneÃ¢â¬â¢s cost. Also the social responsibility norm is when we should help others who really need it, without regard to future exchanges. It must be remembered that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s mood influences whether they would help a person in need. People who are in a good mood are more likely to do good, compared with people who are feeling guilty. But Ã¢â¬â if helping is likely to spoil our good mood, we might not help (Isen, 1984. ) Although if the bad mood is guilt and helping can relieve that, we might help. Also people in small towns are more likely to help than those squashed together in cities. Humans estimate the suitability of behaviour using social norms and adjust behaviour by way of social control. In biology, psychology and sociology, social behaviour is either behaviour directed towards society or taking place in between members of the same species.Social influences are considered the most likely factor for an individual to engage in helping behaviour. Social influences can be defined as the sum of all things that may change or affect a personÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour, thoughts, feelings or actions. Studies on social influences might centre on ways in which behaviour of individuals or a whole group is influenced by outside factors, a personÃ¢â¬â¢s outlook or simply how they appear. An example of these influences was demonstrated by Piliavin et al, 1969, when student experimenters would pretend to collapse in a subway compartment.They would fall to the floor and wait to see if theyÃ¢â¬â¢d be helped. There were two conditions; some would be carrying a cane (known as the Ã¢â¬ËlameÃ¢â¬â¢ condition), and others would wear a jacket which smelled very strongly of alcohol and carried a bottle in a brown paper bag (known as the Ã¢â¬ËdrunkÃ¢â¬â¢ condition. ) They found that help was offered much less often in the Ã¢â¬ËdrunkÃ¢â¬â¢ than in the Ã¢â¬ËlameÃ¢â¬â¢ condition. This shows that the importance of difference is a social influence that determines whether a person helps a victim.Therefore the greater the victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ injury, distress or disfigurement, or the more we disapprove of them or their undesirable behaviour, the more likely we are to perceive them as being different from ourselves. This makes it less likely that we would offer help. Helping behaviour can also be effected by environmental factors, for instance different areas (rural or urban areas), culture differences, simple factors such as the time of day and also time; whether a person is busy, running late or heading somewhere.In order to see how the cost of time would affect helping behaviour Darley and Batson, 1973 (as cited in Gross, 2001) created an experiment called, Ã¢â¬Å"If you need help avoid a late Samaritan. Ã¢â¬ This involved participants who were students at a theological seminary, who were instructed to present a talk in a nearby building. The students were halved; one half was told to speak about Ã¢â¬ËThe Good SamaritanÃ¢â¬â¢ while the other half were told to speak about jobs most enjoyed by seminary students. Then each student was told either a. He was ahead of schedule and had plenty of time, b. He was right on schedule, or . He was late. On the way to their talk, each student passed a man slumped in a doorway, coughing and groaning. The percentages offering help were 63, 45 and ten for conditions a, b and c. Ironically, the results showed that on several occasions the Ã¢â¬ËlateÃ¢â¬â¢ students who were giving a talk about Ã¢â¬ËThe Good SamaritanÃ¢â¬â¢ literally stepped over the victim. This study shows that the cost of time is an important influence on whether an individual chooses to help. Also many studies have found that people tend to help others during daylight when there is no threat to their safety compared with night time. Also personal factors are very strong influences on helping behaviour. The table below shows the costs of helping/ not helping in emergencies/ non-emergencies, and the likelihood/ type of intervention, as predicted by the arousal-cost-reward model (based on Piliavin et al, 1969. ) Costs of helping/not helping and likely outcome| Examples| Costs of helping are low| YouÃ¢â¬â¢re unlikely to be injured yourself; the victim is only shocked. | Costs of helping are high| YouÃ¢â¬â¢d feel guilty; other people would blame you. | Likelihood of intervention very high Ã¢â¬â and direct| |Costs of helping are high| You donÃ¢â¬â¢t like the sight of blood; youÃ¢â¬â¢re unsure what to do. | Costs of helping are high| ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an emergency; the victim could die. | Likelihood of intervention fairly high Ã¢â¬â but indirect| Call for ambulance/police or ask another bystander to assist| Or redefine the situation| Ignore the victim and/ or leave the scene| Costs of helping are high| Ã¢â¬Å"T his drunk could turn violent or throw up over meÃ¢â¬ | Costs of helping are low| Ã¢â¬Å"WhoÃ¢â¬â¢d blame me for not helping? Ã¢â¬ | Likelihood of intervention very low| Bystander may well turn away, change seats, walk away etc. Costs of helping are low| Ã¢â¬Å"It wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t hurt to help this blind man cross the road. Ã¢â¬ | Costs of helping are low| Ã¢â¬Å"He seems capable of looking after himself; thereÃ¢â¬â¢s very little traffic on the road. | Likelihood of intervention fairly high| Bystanders will vary, according to individual differences and how they perceive the norms operating in the particular situation. | Biological influences are factors concerning human instincts such as self preservation and survival. These influences are difficult to ignore because human instinct is to keep a person safe and out of harmÃ¢â¬â¢s way.Therefore there is more likelihood of helping a victim if there is no threat to the helperÃ¢â¬â¢s safety. But safety cannot be guaranteed and results in individuals not helping. Campbell and Church, 1969, as cited in Gross 2001, believed that punishment is a stronger influence on behaviour compared with SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s belief that reinforcement is a stronger influence. In March 1964, Kitty Genovese was attacked in a QueensÃ¢â¬â¢s parking lot at 3am. Thirty eight people were reported who watched from their windows, while she was beaten and stabbed to death over a half hour period.Not one bystander called the police until the attacker had fled. This incident raised much concern into why nobody helped. This led Latane and Darley, together with findings from their laboratory studies, to introduce the concept of the Ã¢â¬Ëunresponsive bystanderÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëbystander apathyÃ¢â¬â¢ to represent peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s typically uncaring attitude towards others in need of help. The American media thought it was remarkable that out of the thirty eight witnesses not one did anything to help, Latane and Darley believed that it was precisely because there were so ma ny, Kitty Genovese was not helped. In result to this incident Latane and Darley researched into how the number of bystanders would affect helping behaviour. They found that 90% of the time, a lone bystander was more likely to help than when many people were around. One study was confederates would drop pencils or coins in an elevator and would see if people would help them pick it up. The results were, if only one person was in the elevator, the confederate received help 40% of the time. Only this figure dropped to 20% when six other people were in the elevator. The question Ã¢â¬Å"Why does more people = less help? Ã¢â¬ is answered with three factors.The first factor is noticing. Another of Latane and DarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s studies shows that any given bystander is less likely to notice the incident as the number of bystanders increase. For example, their 1970 experiment was having men fill out a survey by themselves or in a group. Whilst they completed their survey, smoke would start pouring into the room through a vent. After four minutes of smoke, 75% of subjects who were alone reported the smoke to the researcher, while only 12% of the subjects in the group reported it. This supports there theory of Ã¢â¬Å"more people = less help. Ã¢â¬ The second factor is interpretation.This means the more people that are around, the less likely any will interpret the situation as an emergency. In the smoke experiment, only 3 of 8 groups reported the smoke. Humans use other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour to help measure what the reality of the situation is. The third factor is responsibility. In 1968, Latane and Darley produced another study. Subjects were told they were supposed to discuss problems with University Life. Each subject was put into separate rooms and was told to talk over the intercom. They were also told that no one would be listening to their conversations. During the discussion, one of the Ã¢â¬ËsubjectsÃ¢â¬â¢ began having an epileptic fit and pleaded for help. When the subjects believed they were the only other person in the discussion, 85% left the room to help. However when subjects believed that there were four other people having the discussion, only 31% went to help. This again supports the notion of Ã¢â¬Ëmore people = less help. Ã¢â¬â¢ As cited in R. Gross 2001, Psychology, The Science of Mind and Behaviour, according to Latane and DarleyÃ¢â¬â¢s 1970 decision model, before someone helps another, that person must: * Notice that something is wrong, * Define it as a situation requiring help, Decide whether to take personal responsibility, * Decide what kind of help to give, * Implement the decision to intervene. This symbolizes a logical sequence of steps, showing that a negative response at any one step means that the bystander wonÃ¢â¬â¢t intervene. (See appendix 1 for Decision Model. ) In conclusion, helping in the form of pro-social behaviour has been studied largely in the form of bystander intervention. The murder of Kitty Genovese, together with early laboratory experiments by Latane and Darley supports the notions that when there are more people around, help is less likely to be given.Also that there are many influences that affect helping behaviour, whether it is biological, environmental or social. Nevertheless, altruism is definitely not impossible and humans are not fundamentally selfish. Future research should look into whether gender affects helping behaviour or age, for example, is an adult between 21-30 more prone to help someone rather than a teenager. How to cite Discuss Factors That Facilitate or Impede Helping Behaviour, Papers
Friday, April 24, 2020
The Scarlet Letter Symbolism Essay Webster defined symbol with these words: Something concrete that represents or suggests another thing that cannot in itself be pictured. This concept has been particularly applied to literature and used by writers throughout history. Nathaniel Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter uses multitudes of symbols in such a manner. One of the most prominent, and most complicated, of such symbols is the scarlet letter A. The scarlet letter A is a symbol of a daughters connection to her mother, isolation, and the devil and its associations. The scarlet letter represents Pearls emotional attachment to Hester. For instance, Pearl is as deeply affectionate to the letter as she is to her mother. In chapter ten, Pearl takes a handful of , them along the lines of the scarlet letter. In this instance, Pearl is showing her fondness for her mother by decorating her letter Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" as if the letter itself were a medium between the two. Additionally, Pearl views the letter and her mother as equals. During chapter fourteen, Hester decides to remove her letter while in the forest. We will write a custom essay on The Scarlet Letter Symbolism specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Thus, Pearl is reluctant to approach her. Hester, realizing what is wrong, says, Pearl misses that which she has always seen me wear. After she returns the letter her bosom, Pearl kissed brow and both cheeks Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ but Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Pearl put up her mouth, and kissed the scarlet letter too. Because of the fact that Pearl equates the letter to her mother, the letter is as deep a symbol of motherly connection as Hester is herself. In addition to emotional attachment, the scarlet letter represents isolation. Whoever wears the letter will be feared by society. In chapter five, children Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ would creep nigh enough to behold Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ and discerning the scarlet letter on her breast, would scamper off with a strange, contagious fear. In this passage, the narrator describes the letter as if it triggers fear in those who see it, and thus these individuals avoid the letters bearer. Also, the letter directly creates isolation of its bearer. The narrator speaks of the letter saying that it has the effect of a spell, taking out of the ordinary relations with humanity, and enclosing her in a sphere by herself. Here, Hester first appears with the letter upon her, and the letter is describes as creating an encompassing zone of isolation around her. Fear is a stimulus of isolation, and the scarlet letter radiates both fear and isolation Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" therefore making it a powerful symbol of isolation. Although the scarlet letter has several figurative meanings, it also has literal ones as well, such as the devil and its associations. In chapter sixteen, Pearl inquires Hester as to whether or not she has ever met the Black Man, or forest-dwelling devil. She responds, Once in my life I met the Black Man! Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ This scarlet letter is his mark. Here, Hester is comparing the letter to the devils symbol of previous presence. Moreover, the scarlet letter is an icon of Hell. When Roger Chillingworth and Hester are conversing in chapter three, Chillingworth admits that the adultery was his folly, but he also makes a subtle remark about the letter itself, saying, I might have beheld the bale-fire of that scarlet letter blazing at the end of our path. Because he refers to the letter as having evil fire, he is making an innuendo that the letter is from Hell. In these instances, direct or indirect references to the devil and Hell make it clear that the letter is indeed infernal. The scarlet letter A, the most intricate symbol in the novel, is extremely diverse as its meanings strongly contrast. Often times, these meanings of the symbol are directly stated, but they are frequently indirect as well. The symbols meaning can also be expressed through a variety of methods such as character dialogue, narrative, or allusions through imagery. Despite the differences between maternal love, estrangement, and avernal entities, the letter is still able to encompass these concepts into its symbolism.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
how to Order Mandarin Chinese in a Restaurant When you are visiting China or Taiwan, you will have lots of opportunities to sample the local cuisine. Since food is a national passion, there are restaurants and food stalls almost everywhere. There are many different types of food available, from the various regional dishes of China to Korean, Japanese, and Western. Fast food outlets are in all major cities, and there are also upscale restaurants specializing in Western food - Italian seems to be the most popular. Restaurant Customs When you enter a restaurant, you will be asked how many people are in your party and will be shown to a table. If an English menu is not available, and you dont read Chinese, you will have to ask for help, either from the waiter or a Chinese friend. Most restaurants are open only during meal times - 11:30 to 1:00 for lunch and 5:30 to 7:00 for dinner. Snacks are available almost any time at coffee houses, tea shops, and street vendors. Meals are eaten relatively quickly, and it is customary to leave the restaurant as soon as everyone is finished. Usually, one person will pay for the whole group, so be sure to take your turn in paying for the meal. Tipping is not common in either Taiwan or China, and you usually pay for the meal at the cash register. Here are some phrases to help you order food in a restaurant. English Pinyin Traditional Characters Simplified Characters How many people are there? QÃ ngwÃ ¨n jÃ « wÃ ¨i? Ã¨ «â¹Ã¥â¢ Ã¥ ¹ ¾Ã¤ ½ ? Ã¨ ¯ ·Ã©â" ®Ã¥â¡ Ã¤ ½ ? There are ___ people (in our party). ___ wÃ ¨i. ___ Ã¤ ½ Ã¯ ½ ¡ ___ Ã¤ ½ Ã¯ ½ ¡ Smoking or non-smoking? ChÃ uyÃ n ma? Ã¦Å ½Ã§â¦â¢Ã¥â"Å½? Ã¦Å ½Ã§Æ'Å¸Ã¥ â"? Are you ready to order? KÃâºyÃ diÃÅ½n ci le ma? Ã¥ ¯Ã¤ » ¥Ã© »Å¾Ã¨ Å"Ã¤ ºâ Ã¥â"Å½? Ã¥ ¯Ã¤ » ¥Ã§â ¹Ã¨ Å"Ã¤ ºâ Ã¥ â"? Yes, we are ready to order. WÃâmen yo diÃÅ½n ci. Ã¦ËâÃ¥â¬âÃ¨ ¦ Ã© »Å¾Ã¨ Å"Ã¯ ½ ¡ Ã¦ËâÃ¤ » ¬Ã¨ ¦ Ã§â ¹Ã¨ Å"Ã¯ ½ ¡ Not yet, please give us a few more minutes. Hi mÃ ©i. Zi dÃâºng yÃ «xi. Ã©ââÃ¦ ²â. Ã¥â Ã§ â°Ã¤ ¸â¬Ã¤ ¸â¹Ã¯ ½ ¡ Ã¨ ¿ËÃ¦ ² ¡. Ã¥â Ã§ â°Ã¤ ¸â¬Ã¤ ¸â¹Ã¯ ½ ¡ I would like .... WÃâ yo ... . Ã¦ËâÃ¨ ¦ ... Ã¦ËâÃ¨ ¦ ... . I will have this. WÃâ yo zhÃ ¨gÃ ¨. Ã¦ËâÃ¨ ¦ Ã©â¬â¢Ã¥â¬â¹Ã¯ ½ ¡ Ã¦ËâÃ¨ ¦ Ã¨ ¿â¢Ã¤ ¸ ªÃ¯ ½ ¡ That is for me. ShÃ ¬ wÃâde. Ã¦Ë ¯Ã¦ËâÃ§Å¡âÃ¯ ½ ¡ Ã¦Ë ¯Ã¦ËâÃ§Å¡âÃ¯ ½ ¡ This is not what I ordered. ZhÃ ¨ bÃ ºshÃ ¬ wÃâ diÃÅ½n de. Ã©â¬â¢Ã¤ ¸ Ã¦Ë ¯Ã¦ËâÃ© »Å¾Ã§Å¡âÃ¯ ½ ¡ Ã¨ ¿â¢Ã¤ ¸ Ã¦Ë ¯Ã¦ËâÃ§â ¹Ã§Å¡âÃ¯ ½ ¡ Please bring us some.... QÃ ng zi gÃâºi wÃâmen ... . Ã¨ «â¹Ã¥â Ã§ µ ¦Ã¦ËâÃ¥â¬â...Ã¯ ½ ¡ Ã¨ ¯ ·Ã¥â Ã§ »â¢Ã¦ËâÃ¤ » ¬...Ã¯ ½ ¡ Could I have the bill? QÃ ng gÃâºi wÃâ zhngdÃ n. Ã¨ «â¹Ã§ µ ¦Ã¦ËâÃ¥ ¸ ³Ã¥â" ®Ã¯ ½ ¡ Ã¨ ¯ ·Ã§ »â¢Ã¦ËâÃ¥ ¸ Ã¥ â¢Ã¯ ½ ¡ How much is it? DuÃ shÃÅ½o qin? Ã¥ ¤Å¡Ã¥ °âÃ©Å' ¢? Ã¥ ¤Å¡Ã¥ °âÃ©â ±? Can I pay by credit card? WÃâ kÃâºyÃ yÃ ²ng xÃ ¬nyÃ ²ngkÃÅ½ ma? Ã¦ËâÃ¥ ¯Ã¤ » ¥Ã§â ¨Ã¤ ¿ ¡Ã§â ¨Ã¥ ¡Ã¥â"Å½? Ã¦ËâÃ¥ ¯Ã¤ » ¥Ã§â ¨Ã¤ ¿ ¡Ã§â ¨Ã¥ ¡Ã¥ â"? The bill is not right. ZhngdÃ n bÃ ¹duÃ ¬. Ã¥ ¸ ³Ã¥â" ®Ã¤ ¸ Ã¥ ° Ã¯ ½ ¡ Ã¥ ¸ Ã¥ â¢Ã¤ ¸ Ã¥ ¯ ¹Ã¯ ½ ¡
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Patricia Bath, American Doctor and Inventor Patricia Bath (born November 4, 1942) is an American doctor and inventor. Born in New York City, she was living in Los Angeles when she received her first patent, becoming the first African-American female doctor to patent a medical invention. Baths patent was for a method for removing cataract lenses using laser devices to make the procedure more accurate. Fast Facts: Patricia Bath Known For: Bath is a pioneering ophthalmologist and the first African-American woman doctor to patent a medical invention.Born: November 4, 1942 in Harlem, New YorkParents: Rupert and Gladys BathEducation: Hunter College, Howard UniversityAwards and Honors: New York Academy of MedicineÃ John Stearns Medal for Distinguished Contributions in Clinical Practice, American Medical WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Association Hall of Fame, Hunter College Hall of Fame, Association of Black Women Physicians Lifetime Achievement AwardNotable Quote: My love of humanity and passion for helping others inspired me to become a physician. Early Life Bath was born in Harlem, New York, on November 4, 1942. Her father Rupert was a newspaper columnist and trader, and her mother Gladys was a housekeeper. Bath and her brother attended Charles Evans Hughes High School in the Chelsea neighborhood of New York City. Bath was deeply interested in science and, while she was still a teenager, won a scholarship from the National Science Foundation; her research at the Harlem Hospital Center resulted in a published paper. Career Bath went on to study chemistry at Hunter College, graduating in 1964. She then moved to Washington, D.C., to complete her medical training at the Howard University College of Medicine. Bath graduated with honors in 1968 and returned to New York to complete specialty training in ophthalmology and corneaÃ transplant at both New York University and Columbia University. According to an interview she later completed for the U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bath faced many challenges in this early part of her career: Sexism, racism, and relative poverty were the obstacles which I faced as a young girl growing up in Harlem. There were no women physicians I knew of and surgery was a male-dominated profession; no high schools existed in Harlem, a predominantly black community; additionally, blacks were excluded from numerous medical schools and medical societies; and, my family did not possess the funds to send me to medical school. At the Harlem Hospital Center, Bath focused on finding treatments for blindness and visual impairment. In 1969, she and several other doctors performed the hospitals first eye surgery. Bath used her personal experience as a medical professional to publish a paper demonstrating higher rates of blindness among African Americans. Her observations led her to develop a new field of study known as community ophthalmology; it was based on her recognition that blindness was more common among under-served populations both in the United States and around the world. Bath has supported community health initiatives aimed at reducing blindness within these communities through preventative care and other measures. Bath served on the faculty of UCLA for many years before retiring in 1993. She has lectured at many medical institutions, including the Howard University School of Medicine, and published numerous papers about her research and inventions. Cataract Laserphaco Probe Baths dedication to the treatment and prevention of blindness led her to develop the Cataract Laserphaco Probe. Patented in 1988, the probe was designed to use the power of a laser to quickly and painlessly vaporize cataracts from patients eyes, replacing the more common method of using a grinding, drill-like device to remove the afflictions. Baths device is now used around the world to treat patients with blindness. In 1977, Bath founded the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness (AIPB). The organization supports the training of medical professionals and the treatment of individuals with eye problems around the world. As a representative of the AIPB, Bath has participated in humanitarian missions to developing countries, where she has provided treatment to numerous individuals. One of her favorite experiences in this capacity, she says, was traveling to North Africa and treating a woman who had been blind for 30 years. The AIPB also supports preventative care, including supplying children around the world with protective eye drops, vitamin A supplements, and vaccinations for diseases that can cause blindness. Patents To date, Bath has received five separate patents for her inventions. The first two- both awarded in 1988- relate to her revolutionary cataract probe. Others include: Laser apparatus for surgery of cataractous lenses (1999): Another laser apparatus, this invention provided a way to remove cataracts by making a micro-incision and applying radiation.Pulsed ultrasound method for fragmenting/emulsifying and removing cataractous lenses (2000): This invention uses ultrasonic energy to remove cataracts.Combination ultrasound and laser method and apparatus for removing cataract lenses (2003): A synthesis of Baths two previous inventions, this one uses both ultrasonic energy and laser radiation for even more precise removal of cataracts. The invention also includes a unique optical fiber delivery system for the transmission of the ultrasonic vibrations and radiation. With these inventions, Bath was able to restore sight to people who had been blind for over 30 years. Bath also holds patents for her inventions in Japan, Canada, and Europe. Achievements and Honors In 1975, Bath became the first African-American woman surgeon at the UCLA Medical Center and the first woman to be on the faculty of the UCLA Jules Stein Eye Institute. She is the founder and first president of the American Institute for the Prevention of Blindness. Bath was elected to the Hunter College Hall of Fame in 1988 and was named a Howard University Pioneer in Academic Medicine in 1993. In 2018, she was awarded the New York Academy of Medicine John Stearns Medal for Distinguished Contributions in Clinical Practice. Sources Montague, Charlotte.Ã Women of Invention: Life-Changing Ideas by Remarkable Women. Chartwell Books, 2018.Wilson, Donald, and Jane Wilson.Ã The Pride of African American History: Inventors, Scientists, Physicians, Engineers: Featuring Many Outstanding African Americans and More than 1,000 African American Inventions Verified by U.S. Patent Numbers. DCW Pub. Co., 2003.
Friday, February 14, 2020
ENGLISH LEGAL HISTORY - Essay Example Such a long experience of many generations has given this system the depth no legal systems in the world can match. The process of going through ages of human civilization has evolved this system in such a way that it not only meets the legal standards of practicability but also the human side of it. British legal system is consistent with the thinking of its citizens. Traditions and conventions are at the heart of it making the law and the folk wisdom compatible with each other. This traditional approach has given rise to certain inherent principles of British legal system e.g. the doctrine of rule of law, independence of judiciary and habeas corpus. These principles Ã¢â¬âjust like the legal system itself- have evolved over a period of centuries and form the basis of British system of Justice. The fact that most of the modern day world has also benefited from the British common law principles, make these traditional laws a sound base for many universally accepted rules now. In the below discussion we will look at some of these principles in detail. We will highlight their evolution, their importance in the development of legal system and their implications in the modern age. We will also see how the tradition side of these rules still reflects itself in the developed laws. Habeas Corpus is a Latin word which means Ã¢â¬Ëyou shall have the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢. In legal sense it represents a method through which any person can claim relief against unlawful attest or detention from any other person or even the legal system itself. In other words, it is a system through which the court can order to bring a detained person so that it may be ascertained whether he was detained lawfully or not. The petition of Habeas Corpus can be brought by the person himself or if he is unable to seek such remedy because of being in detention, then by any other person. Habeas Corpus is originally an English concept which originated in the early
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Land law - Outline Example (b). Gill find herself in a situation where there are people claiming to have interest on the land she has just acquired from Selina Morton. These parties claim differently and their rights if any are subject to this discussion. As for Collins Jones, he claims that he has exclusive right over a barn that in the land that was sold to Gill. He claims that an assignment in his favour was made by one Mona Siddique who alleged to have acquired a lease to use the barn from Selina Moron for a period of 25 years. It is this lease that was assigned to Colin Jones. This being a lease of more than 7 years, it ought to be registered for it to be effective from the official copy of register, there is an entry of a registered lease up to the year 2035. However, an alleged assignment of the lease by the initial lessee to Collins was not registered. This is contrary to law and is therefore unenforceable by Collins against Gill. Collins has no right as the assignee for want of registration of assignment instrument. However, Mona has a right to claim under the lease and occupy the barn. This means that Gill will have to occupy subject to the rights of Mona created under the lease agreement (Land Registration Act 2002). As for Harold, he claims that he has passed through the land transferred to Gill as short cut to his hives for fifty years. Harold is therefore claiming a right of way. A right of way is an easement which ought to satisfy all the elements of a valid easement for it to be recognised. First, there must be a dominant tenement and a servient tenement. This means that there must be someone using this land and the land that is being used. Secondly, the person using the land of another must have been allowed to use it by the owner. Thirdly, the owners of the two parcels of land (dominant tenement and Servient tenement must be
Friday, January 24, 2020
Public cities around the world are becoming more involved with a wide array of new technologies without realizing it. From super computers that calculate the movement of satellites without human involvement, to handheld personal computers. Consumers abide with an egregious array of brand new scientific advances that are accompanied by confusing new terms. The food and drug administration, commonly known as the F.D.A, is focusing much of their time with food biotechnology. The all-encompassing use of biotechnology when applied to agriculture and food production increases the deeply felt environmental, economic and ethical concern. The liberation of genetically engineered organisms into the environment poses apprehensive questions regarding the serious promising risk to human health. Genetic engineering or genetic modification is a procedure that requires direct human manipulation of organismÃ¢â¬â¢s genetic makeup, altering their DNA that would not commonly happen under natural circumstances. Such applications include the implementation of human genes into animals as well as animal genes into other animals and plants. The industry which practices this gene modification is commonly known as biotechnology. In the next few years this industry has plans to release genetically engineered bacteria, viruses as well as transgenic animals into the environment. With the release of engineered organisms, many feel apprehensive and concerned with the potential harm it may cause to human health. Because the modified organisms are living, they are more likely to be unpredictable than chemicals. Jeremy Rifkin suggests, Ã¢â¬Å"the long-term cumulative environmental impact of releasing thousands of genetically engineered organisms could be equally destruc... ... Fry-Revere, Sigrid. "Cloning Animals for Food Is Morally Permissible." Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2009. At Issue. Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 1 Dec. 2010. Pollack, Andrew. "F.D.A. hearing focuses on the labeling of genetically engineered salmon." New York Times 22 Sept. 2010: B3 (L). Gale Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 1 Dec. 2010. Pollack, Andrew. "Rules near for animals' engineering." New York Times 18 Sept. 2008: C15(L). Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 3 Dec. 2010. Phillips, Susan C. "Genetically Engineered Foods." CQ Researcher 4.29 (1994): 673-696. CQ Researcher. Web. 1 Dec. 2010. Entine, Jon. "Genetically Modified Foods Are Safe." Ethical Corporation (Apr. 2006). Rpt. in Genetically Engineered Foods. Ed. Nancy Harris. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2003. At Issue. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 5 Dec. 2010
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Education is an important tool to personal and professional success at this time of age. More and more companies and organizations choose to hire people who have completed their degrees. It provides the right training and knowledge to people so that they may excel in their chosen fields. The most important aspect of receiving a good education, however, is the improvements it can bring to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. There are others who do not see the importance of a good education. They argue that a person does not need to have a degree in order to be successful in life. They further believe that it only takes determination and perseverance to make it to the top. Because there have been several people who have no academic degrees but are financially successful like Bill Gates (Ã¢â¬Å"Proof M. B. A. s Are OverratedÃ¢â¬ ), people who feel this way about education feel stronger about their stance. However, in reality, education is more important than what most people believe. It is very true that success needs hard work, determination, and perseverance but if a person has these three and a good education, it is more likely that he or she will succeed in life. People who prove be in no need of an education are either very rich or are too smart for school. Looking at the real situation there are only a few people who fall in these two categories and majority of the public do need education in order to succeed and be financially stable. There are also those, particularly teenagers, who believe that receiving education is a waste of time and that they do not have to have degrees in order to have a job. While this is true, differences can be seen from the types of jobs that degree holders can get compared to that of non-degree holders. Most jobs that non-degree holders can apply for are very low-paying and one cannot expect much growth from it. Many companies only promote employees who have completed their education. A good education will provide an individual with the knowledge and experience that he or she needs to enter the corporate world. This is where a person can learn how to make use of his or her talents and maximize these to his or her own full potential. When this is done with the proper attitude, the possibilities are endless. Being educated can also bring about respect from other people. Although it is very discriminating and should not be practiced, educated people are given more attention and that people will hear what they have to say about certain things. It is more likely that people look up to and believe those who have a good education. Education can also lessen poverty and ignorance, which can help improve a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economic status. Aside from these things, there are also numerous other benefits that a person can receive from a good education. Learning how to socialize and interact with others is one of the most essential benefits that attending school can give. Students are exposed to other people who may or may not be different from them and this will teach them important lessons in life. Some may indicate that they can learn from books without the help of others. However, instructors are there for a reason and this is to guide students on the learning process. One can read a book and may understand it but learning is still different when there is someone who can clarify things and provide in-depth analysis of the learnings. Books, especially textbooks for school, are sometimes too complicated without the help of professors. It is not enough to read them and then decide that the person has already learned everything because he or she may have misinterpeted some of the things that the textbook is trying to say. Personally, I believe that a person needs education because of the positive things it can contribute to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life and his or her country. Nowadays, due to the influence of media, people have become followers of what they see and hear around them. No one thinks anymore and nobody cares. If people are educated enough, they will have good decision-making skills and will be able to determine what would be good or bad for him or her better. Over the years, the importance of education has been seen and has not yet been replaced by anything else. Education makes one a better person even if it is only in mental terms. Still, one must remember that education is not enough to succeed. Even if the person possesses the best education there is in the whole of the country or world for that matter, if he or she does not have the right amount of determination and strength to survive in the corporate world, then it will amount to nothing. Education should not be taken for granted, especially with the fact that not all people are able to afford it.
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
causing this behavior. Primary school is an especially tough time for our young ones. If educators are really looking to put an end to bullying, they have to attack it from the root of the problem (Linder-Altman). What a child is wearing will not get them bullied, it depends on the bully. Making uniforms mandatory in efforts to decrease bullying, only teaches our children that the only way to be accepted is by conforming which is not what we should be pushing for. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to attack the problem by the root. A lot of times the bully may be going through something in their life outside of school which is causing them to lash out at others. If all the school systems do to fix bullying is make their students wear uniforms, then whatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In School Uniforms and discourses on childhood, Bodine is looking at the change in apparent behavior of students once they are introduced to uniforms. Erik Erikson was a German-born psychoanalyst who studied the eg o, personal and social identities. He believed that between the ages of six and twelve children acquire new skills and knowledge which develop a sense of industry (Darwin 15). In this stage children build on their sense of self-worth as well as their confidence. This is also a very social stage for the child. It is in this stage where self-esteem issues may arise due to feelings of inadequacy. With that being said, we run the risk of our children feeling like they have to conform in order to be accepted as if they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be liked because they rather wear clothing of their own choice. In School Uniforms and Discourses on Childhood, BehlingÃ¢â¬â¢s drive to look into the effects uniforms have on children was the fact that everyone has rights, no matter their age. Her views on how the school systems are just simply masking the problem rather than trying to solve them are similar to mine. Bodine also uses her past conversations with students who feel theyÃ¢â¬â¢re stuck in the middle of this whole battle. One of the children admitted to feeling like a ping-pong ball being bounced between their parents and their school (Behling 423). Studies which survey clothing have shown that what someone wears is a critical factor of person perception
Sunday, December 22, 2019
No matter how hard one tries to avoid being manipulated, it is impossible to avoid all sources such as documents, leaders and friends. Manipulation, the ability to alter the position or influence a person, occurs everywhere one goes. Throughout Julius Caesar by Shakespeare and The Life of Caesar by Plutarch, the theme of manipulation was revealed through countless instances showing both its sources and effects. Several of the characters in both accounts, such as Brutus, Caesar, and the people of Rome, were manipulated one time or another, by sources such as their close friends who merely desired their ideas and plans to continue forward. Cassius, an envious and ambitious man, did not approve of what Caesar was doing as ruler and believedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Decius came and distorted the interpretation to make it seem positive and that nothing bad would happen to him. One of the aspects of the dream that Decius altered to focus on positive outcomes, was his statue spouting blood in many pipes. He changed the idea so that the blood symbolized reviving blood, that all would use for benefit. Caesar trusted DeciusÃ¢â¬â¢ explanation of the dream and exclaimed Ã¢â¬Å"How foolish do your fears seem now, Calpurnia! I am ashamed I did yield to them. Give me my robe, for I will go.Ã¢â¬ (Shakespeare 31) Decius made his interpretation appear much more desirable than Calpurnias and tricked Caesar. Even though it was only a miniscule change in the eyes of Caesar, little did he know it would send him to his death. After Caesars death, Brutus brought out the body and showed it to the people. He gave a speech and told the people Ã¢â¬Å"If there be any in this assembly, any dear friend of Caesars, to him I say, that Brutus love to Caesar was no less than his. If then that friend demand why Brutus rose against Caesar, this is my answer: not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more.Ã¢â¬ (Shakespeare 45) Brutus told the people this to manipulate into thinking that he had done this to protect Rome, because Caesar was stealing all of the authority and leaving everyone else powerless. This was not theShow MoreRelatedA Historical Overview Of Julius Caesar Essay1452 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA Historical Overview of Julius Caesar (Shakespeare style) The fate of a nation determined by one man. With classic alliances and betrayals, the tale of Julius Caesar is still regarded as one of the greatest betrayals in human history. The fate of Rome was heading toward a dictatorship. Only the Roman Republic could stop Julius Caesar from ruling Rome. 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